Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or Elisa, which is also known as enzyme immunoassay, is like the various other kinds of immunoassays. This relies on the antibodies for detecting one target antigen by using specific antibody and antigen interactions. In an Elisa test, the antigen is going to be immobilized and this is normally done by using captured antibodies or directly. Elisa assays are performed in multi-well plates. Multi-well plates are responsible for providing a solid surface for immobilizing the antigen. The immobilization is responsible for facilitating the separation of antigen from the several other components that are present within the sample. This characteristic is responsible for making Elisa test one of the best assays that can be performed on multiple samples.
Advantages of Elisa test
Given below is a list of the advantages that are associated with an Elisa test.
Specificity and high sensitivity: It is extremely common for an Elisa test to detect the antigens at a picogram level in a specific manner because antibodies are being used.
Easy to perform: In the case of an Elisa test, it is not a difficult job to follow all the protocols. Apart from that, the test takes less time to perform.
Quantitative: It is capable of determining the concentration of a particular antigen within a particular sample.
Different samples can be tested: In a test, various kinds of samples can be tested. These include plasma, serum, tissue, and cellular extracts, saliva, urine, etc., and more.
Given below is a list of the disadvantages associated with an Elisa test.
Temporary readouts: The detection is normally based on the reactions of the enzymes or substrates. Therefore, the readout needs to be obtained within a short time only.
Limited antigen information: The information provided is limited to the presence of antigen in the given sample.
Different kinds of Elisa test
The different types of Elisa test include:
- Indirect Elisa
- Direct Elisa
- Sandwich Elisa
Direct Elisa – The antigen is normally immobilized to the face of the plate as well as detected with antibodies specific for antigens, as stated by www.abcam.com. Then, it is conjugated to several detection molecules. The protocol is short and it is responsible for saving both time as well as reagents. This is a highly flexible procedure. You can purchase Elisa test kits from Mybiosource.
Indirect Elisa – This process is comparable to direct Elisa. Only, a two-step method is used for the detection of the condition. This method is normally used for detecting specific antibodies in serum samples by substituting serums for primary antibodies. Apart from that, the secondary antibody can be used for several primary antibodies.
Sandwich Elisa – Sandwich Elisa, also known as sandwich immunoassay is one of the most common formats. This format normally requires two separate antibodies for various epitopes of a particular antigen. This method is particularly suitable for complex samples and involves sensitivity as well as flexibility.
Elisa tests can be used for detecting several diseases including HIV, dengue, malaria and several others. Make sure that you know everything about Elisa so that you are not ignorant of the test that is going to be conducted in case if you are suffering from any disease.